Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion and Toxicology
(ADMET): an element of pre-clinical and clinical trials used to
measure the effects of a drug on animal and human physiology.
Amino acid: building block of proteins. Proteins consist of
amino acids linked end-to-end. There are 20 different amino acid
molecules that make up proteins. The DNA sequence that codes for a gene
dictates the order of amino acids in a given protein.
Antibiotic: a chemical substance that can kill or inhibit the
growth of a microorganism.
Antibody: immune system protein produced by humans and higher
animals to recognize and neutralize bacteria, viruses, cancerous cells,
and other foreign compounds.
Antisense: a natural or synthetic DNA or RNA molecule that
specifically binds with messenger RNA to selectively inhibit expression
of a single gene.
Applied research: aimed at gaining knowledge or understanding
to determine the means by which a specific recognized need may be met.
Applied research builds upon the discoveries of basic research to enable
Bacillus thuringiensis: a naturally occurring bacteria that
produces Bt toxin, a protein that is toxic to certain kinds of insects.
The Bt toxin gene has been genetically engineered into corn and cotton
plants to reduce the need for chemical pesticides.
Base: A key component of DNA and RNA molecules. Four different
bases are found in DNA: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and
thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) substitutes for thymine.
Basic research: aimed at gaining more comprehensive knowledge
or understanding of the subject under study, without specific
applications in mind. Basic research advances scientific knowledge but
does not have specific immediate commercial objectives, although it may
be in fields of present or potential commercial interest.