Bioinformatics: the application of information technology to
manage and analyze the vast amounts of data generated from biological
Bioremediation: the use of biological systems, usually
microorganisms, to decompose or sequester toxic and unwanted substances
in the environment.
Biotechnology: the application of molecular biology for useful
Chromosome: the DNA-protein complexes that contain all the
genes in a cell.
Codon: a sequence of three DNA or RNA bases that specifies an
amino acid in the synthesis of a protein.
Combinatorial chemistry: a product discovery technique that
uses robotics and parallel chemical reactions to generate and screen as
many as several million molecules with similar structures in order to
find chemical molecules with desired properties.
Data mining: using computers to analyze masses of information
to discover trends and patterns.
Diagnostic: a product used for the diagnosis of a disease or
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): the primary source of genetic
information in cells. DNA is made up of nucleotides and is composed of
two strands wound around each other, called the double helix.
DNA fingerprinting: a DNA analysis method that measures
genetic variation among individuals. This technology is often used as a
forensic tool to detect differences or similarities in blood and tissue
samples at crime scenes.
DNA sequencing: the process of determining the exact order of
bases in a segment of DNA.
Double-blind: an experimental protocol whereby neither the
experimental subjects nor the administrators know whether a drug or
placebo is being administered. Double-blind protocols are used to
Drug delivery: the process by which a formulated drug is
administered to the patient.
Drug development: the process of taking a lead compound,
demonstrating it to be safe and effective for use in humans, and
preparing it for commercial-scale manufacture.