Rational drug design: using the known three-dimensional
structure of a molecule, usually a protein, to design a drug that will
Recombinant DNA: the DNA formed by combining segments of DNA
from different sources.
Restriction enzyme: a protein that cuts DNA molecules at
specific sites, dictated by the nucleotide sequence.
Retrovirus: a type of virus that reproduces by converting RNA
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP): a single base difference
in the sequence of a gene which alters the structure and function of the
RNA (ribonucleic acid): a nucleic acid, similar to DNA, that
has roles in gene expression.
RNA interference: using antisense techniques to selectively
inhibit expression of a gene.
Stem cell: an undifferentiated cell that can multiply and
become any sort of cell in the body.
Tissue engineering: the production of natural or synthetic
organs and tissues that can be implanted as fully functional units or
may develop to perform necessary functions following implantation
Transcription: the synthesis of an mRNA molecule as a copy of
a gene. In gene expression, transcription precedes translation.
Translation: the synthesis of a protein based on the
nucleotide sequence of an mRNA molecule, which corresponds to the
sequence of a gene.
Transgenic: an organism with one or more genes that have been
transferred to it from another organism.
Vaccine: a preparation of either whole disease-causing
organisms (killed or weakened) or parts of such organisms, used to
confer immunity against the disease that the organisms cause. Vaccine
preparations can be natural, synthetic, or derived by recombinant DNA
X-ray crystallography: an essential technique for determining
the three-dimensional structure of biological molecules.
Xenotransplantation: transplanting a foreign tissue into